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  1. What was the issue of Separate or Joint Electorate in the beginning years of Pakistan?

Separate or Joint Electorate: Separate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government. But the minorities did not favor this after independence. Religious elements supported this as a part of heritage. East: decided for Joint Electorate.

 West: Separate electorate. 1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for all Pakistan by the National Assembly.

  • Why population figures are important?

Population figures are important for Planning and development, Socio-economic development and poverty alleviation etc.

  • Very shortly emphasize on the Cottage Industry of Pakistan?

 Cottage Industry of Pakistan: Industries established on small scale, involving a household or small number of people, use of limited resources, having less investment are called small or cottage industries e.g., Carpets, sports goods, toys, power or handlooms, handicraft etc.

  • Draw attention to Pakistan’s Neighborhoods?

Neighborhood of Pakistan: Pakistan is located in strategically important region. It is the center of global interests. For all the big powers like China and Russia it is important. U.S maintains interests to keep an eye on both China and Russia. It is on the gateway of Central Asian Muslim States through Afghanistan. On the other side of it is the outer region of the Gulf region having rich oil resources and economic wealth. Pakistan has close brotherly ties with these states. Now the pipelines of oil and gas are planning to be passed through Pakistan. It will be a new start of economic cooperation in the region.

  • What kind of nature/character Pakistan’s nuclear policy has?

 Nuclear Policy: Pakistan has been champion of peaceful uses of nuclear technology. Pakistan avoided nuclear explosions despite having the knowledge and capability of processing Plutonium, Uranium. It was only for the sake of deterrence and reaction to India’s nuclear explosions.

  • Highlight the “Shahabuddine Commission” set up by Ayub Khan in 1960?

Shahabuddine Commission: This commission was set up by Ayub Khan in 1960.The tasks assigned to the Commission were: (A) To examine the causes of failure of Parliamentary system. (B) Recommend a new system keeping in view the (1) Genius of people (2) Standard of education (3) Internal conditions of the country (4) Need of development.

  1. Write a short note on the “PIRPUR REPORT”(1938)?

The Pirpur Report: On March 28, 1938, the Council of ML appointed an eight-member committee under the president ship of Raja Syed Muhammad Mehdi of Pirpur that presented its report on, November 15, 1938. It tried to dig out the cruelties of the Congress ministries in seven provinces. The report took up the Congress support to the rival Muslim organizations, intimidation and threats to the pro-Muslim League people.

  • What kind of objections was raised by the Non-Muslims on The Objectives Resolution 1949?

 Objections by Non-Muslims on The Objectives Resolution: The major objection by the Non-Muslims was that the government was trying to mix the religion and politics that was against the spirit of democracy. The non-Muslims objected on the ‘Sovereignty of Allah’ and ‘minorities’ rights, saying it would promote inequality in the society. They were also of view that Shariah was not adequate for the modern time. They feared that it would encourage the religious extremists to work for the establishment of a ‘theocratic state.’

  • How do you analyze Pakistan’s internal political development (1972-2008)? Answer should be inclusive.

 Recently the Politics of Pakistan has taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. In the current semi-presidential system, the President of Pakistan is the head of state, the Prime Minister is head of government, and there is a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is largely vested in the Parliament. Pakistan has been under the influence of its military almost since it was founded. The Intelligence agencies have a huge role in the politics since the beginning in making and breaking the political parties. The president, in keeping with the constitutional provision that the state religion is Islam, must be a Muslim. Elected for a five-year term by an Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members of the provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for reelection. But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office for incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament. The president generally acts on the advice of the prime minister but has important residual powers. One of the most important- -a legacy of Zia–is contained in the Eighth Amendment which gives the president the power to dissolve the National Assembly “in his discretion where, in his opinion . . . a situation has arisen in which the Government of the Federation cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and an appeal to the electorate is necessary.” The Thirteenth Amendment which was passed in 1997, revoked this power. In December 2003, the President’s power was partially restored by the Seventeenth Amendment. In April 2004, the Presidency’s influence was augmented by an Act of Parliament that established the National Security Council, a body chaired by the President. The prime minister is appointed by the members of the National Assembly through a vote. The prime minister is assisted by the Federal Cabinet, a council of ministers whose members are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister. The Federal Cabinet comprises the ministers, ministers of state, and advisers. As of early 1994, there were thirty-three ministerial portfolios: commerce; communications; culture; defense; defense production; education.

  • Define Constitution?

Ans. Constitution is the system for government often codified a written document that establishes the rules and principles of autonomous.

  • Write not on the National Language Issue under the Constitution of 1973?

Ansr: 1) The National language of Pakistan is Urdu, and arrangements shall be made for its being used for official and other purposes within fifteen years from the commencing day. (2) Subject to clause (1), the English language may be used for official purposes until arrangements are made for its replacement by Urdu.

  • What did Muslim gain from the Lucknow Pact?

ANS: The most significant achievement of this pact for the Muslims was that for the first time the Congress had recognized the Muslim League as a representative body of the Muslims of the sub-continent and they were granted separate electorates in the provincial as well as in Imperial Legislative Council.

  • Write a short note on The Quit India Movement 1942?

ANS: The Quit India Movement (August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi’s call for immediate independence. Gandhi hoped to bring the British government to the negotiating table. Almost the entire Indian National Congress leadership, and not just at the national level, was put into confinement less than twenty-four hours after Gandhi’s speech, and the greater number of the Congress leaders were to spend the rest of World War II in jail…

  • Explain the Evolution of Two-Nation Theory in the Subcon?

ANS: The Two-Nation Theory was the basis for the Partition of India in 1947. It stated that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations by every definition, and therefore Muslims should have an autonomous homeland in the Muslim majority areas of British India for the safeguard of their political, cultural, and social rights, within or without a United India. The Two-Nation Theory is the ideology that the primary identity of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity, and therefore Indian Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nationalities, regardless of ethnic or other commonalities.This Theory was a founding principle of the Pakistan Movement (i.e. the Ideology of Pakistan), and the Partition of India in 1947.

  • What were Delhi Muslim Proposals? Discuss in detail?

ANS: Important Muslim leaders on the initiative of the Quaid met in Delhi to discuss constitutional and political issues. The major demands were: _ Punjab and Bengal: statuary Muslim majorities _ No Weightage in provinces _ Sind to be separated from Bombay _ Constitutional Reforms in NWFP _ One-third seats for Muslims in Central Legislature _ On communal issues, no law will be passed if three-fourth members of the concerned community oppose it. If these demands are accepted, they will give up ‘separate electorate.’ Subsequently, the Muslim League was divided in the Punjab, Shafi League and Jinnah League. Sir Muhammad Shafi opposed Jinnah on the issues: _ Separate electorate _ Attitude towards the Simon Commission. Jinnah continued his unremitting efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity.

  1. Write a very short note on Pakistan National Movement in 1940?

ANS: The Pakistan Movement refers to the independence movement of Pakistan from the British Indian empire and its emergence as a sovereign country. It has its origins in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The movement was led by lawyer Muhammad Ali Jinnah and such leaders as Allama Iqbal, Liaqat Ali Khan, Fatima Jinnah,Bahadur Yar Jung, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, A.K. Fazlul Huq, and Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, Sir Ziauddin Ahmed.

What were the main points of Lucknow Pact?

ANS: The main clauses of the Lucknow Pact were: 1. There shall be self-government in India. 2. Muslims should be given one-third representation in the central government 3. There should be separate electorates for all the communities until a community demanded for joint electorates. 4. System of weightage should be adopted.

  1. Write a note on The Communal Award, 1932?

Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald announced the Communal Award: 1. Separate electorate for all minorities of India. 2. Weightage to minorities 3. No Muslim majorities in Punjab and Bengal as was followed in Lucknow Pact 4. One third representation for Muslims in Central legislature 5. One fourth representation for Muslims in services 6. Sind to be made a province.

Briefly tell The Direct Action Day August 16, 1946?

ANS: August 16,1946 The ML’s timely coercive political strategy brought the Congress on table with the British. The Interim Government was formed under Nehru on September 2, 1946 and the ML stayed away. They joined it on October 25, 1946: _ Liaquat Ali Khan _ Sardar Abdur-Rab Nishtar _ Raja Gazanfar Ali _ Chundrigar _ J. N. Mandal There were a number of problems of smooth functioning of the Interim Government due to the Muslim-Hindu differences.

Explain the Cancellation of the Partition of Bengal?

ANS: The cancellation of the Partition of Bengal was announced in 1911.The British government revoked the partition to avoid trouble on the visit of King George V. The Muslims were disappointed by the government response to the violent strategy of protests adopted by Hindus.

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